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SAP/IT

[SAP] F-02 General Posting [Functionality]

投稿日:2020-08-08 更新日:

Hi, this is a post to summarize functionality of Tr-Code: F-02 General Posting in SAP.

Functionality Overview

Via Tr-Code: F-02, you can create accounting document. This functionality would be used when you receive some document that you need to capture in your journal as monetary transaction occurs.

Just as sames as the physical document that you will receive at your office, SAP has document structure, composed of header information and item information.

In the header, the common information for all the following items are captured, such as company code, posting date, or currency. In the item, detail of the entry would captured, such as account code to be used, amount, and cost center information (department information that needs to be identified for cost allocation point of view).

This is the main functionality of Tr-Code:F-02, but following functionality could be also provided by SAP. Some of them are automatic function.

  • Posting to General Ledger/Sub-ledger
  • Simulating journal entry
  • Automatic tax calculation

Screen Flow Overview

Then, let's see how the screen would flow. Later, I'm going to show detail for each of them.

1st step is to input header information. Then input item information and simulate. If no error found, the last step is to post. Once posted, you can display the created accounting document.

Screen Flow Detail

Input Header

Let's see the detail of each screen. First screen is shown as follows.

The meaning of each fields are as follows.
Please note, not all of them are mandatory field to process. The mandatory field and optional field setting is dependent on case by case, so please check it in your environment.

#FieldDescription
Document DateDate that original document was created on
Document TypeType used to categorize accounting document. Selected from pre-defined document types, in accordance with transaction characteristics (e.g. Asset, Credit Note, etc.)
Company CodeCompany code to identify which company will capture journal entry from this accounting document
Posting DateDate that accounting document is posted in system. Default value is set as system date.(Today)
Posting PeriodAccounting period which posts accounting document. Automatically determined by Posting date.
Currency/RateCurrency used for the accounting document. If currency different from local currency is seleted, exchange rate can be also specified. (Default value for these could be set in advance)
Document NumberUnique identification number to determine accounting document in the same posting period. System automatically generates this number once the accounting document is saved.
Translation DateDate to detemine appropriate foreign exchange rate. This is used only in the case currency is set as different currency from local one.
ReferenceReference information for the accounting document to be created. When predecessor document is existing, those number would be entered generally.
Number of Cross-Company Code Posting TransactionField to specify payee company etc.
Document Header TextExplanatory information for accounting document.
Trading Partner's Business AreaField used to specify business area. In case of elimination of intercompany transaction in business area is required, this field is used.

Input Item

In the bottom part of the first screen, there are fields to enter item.

#FieldDescription
Posting KeyField used to determine debit/credit for the item, and ledger that the entry would be posted.
Account CodeCode to identify account used in posting.
Special G/L IndicatorField used for special transaction (Advance payment, advance received, notes payable, etc.)
Asset Transaction TypeField used in transacction for fixed asset

Following posting keys are frequently used, so maybe you can memorize these.

UsageDebitCredit
G/L Account4050
AR Account0111
AR Account (Special)0919
AP Account2131
AP Account (Special)2939
AA Account7075

When AR Account is posted, accounting document is posted to Customer sub-ledger. When AP Account, posted to Vendor sub-ledger, and when AA Account, posted to Fixed Asset sub-ledger.

When posting key and account code is entered, screen changed to item detail for the first line. Here, you will enter detail information for the first line item, and enter posting key or account code for the next line item.

Until all the line items are entered, this is continued.

#FieldDescription
AmountTotal amount for the line item including tax
Tax CodeCode to identify appropriate taxation for the line item (e.g. 5%, 10%, etc)
Calculate Tax AutomaticallyIndicator to identify automatic tax calculation is required or not. If checked, while posting, tax amount is calculated automatically and entry would be generated, such as provisional consumption tax.
Cost CenterDepartment information to allocate cost to.
QuantityQuantity, in case of transaction is related to fixed asset.
New Company CodeCompany code for the next line item. 

If the line you are editing is the last line item, you can enter just '*' in the amount field. This means, the balance would be entered for the line item.

Simulate

If you finish entering all the line item, the next thing you do is to simulate the entry.

By simulating, the entries are listed up and shown on the display. If you find any entry to be corrected, you can edit the entry by double clicking it.

Here, the result would be different in accordance with the status of "Calculate Tax Automatically". If the indicator is checked, and the balance of debit/credit has no issue, the tax amount is automatically calculated and additional line item is entered.

Screenshot above shows, the case without checking the indicator on the left hand side, and the other case with checking it on the right hand side.

Post & Display

When the simulation results are OK, you can post the entry. Once the post is done, accounting document is generated and document number is shown on the screen.

By display function, you can see the accounting document created.

Please be aware that before posting, you can edit the entry, however after the posting you cannot. If you need to adjust still, you need to reverse the entry with another posting or adjust the entry with another posting.

Document type

Document type is used as a key information for accounting document. This is assigned to each accounting document header level. Depending on the characteristics of financial accounting treatment, this document type is separately defined.

Let's talk about the usage of document type. For example, if you want to extract past financial transaction related to Fixed Asset, you can use document type which is assigned to the fixed asset transaction, because document type is defined by financial transaction characteristics.

Document type can be defined by user's requirements, but SAP standard functionality provides generally used document types. Followings are the ones provided by SAP standard functionality, which are used frequently.

Document TypeUsage
AAFor fixed asset accounting
DRFor billing to customer
DZFor customer's payment
KRFor vendor's invoice
ZPFor payment to vendor
SAFor general ledger accunting

Tr-Code: OBA7 will lead you to the screen to display/customize the document types. When you newly define document types, you need to mention number range assignment, account types allowed for the document type, and so on.

Posting Key

Posting key is a key information assigned to item level in accounting document. Depending on the posting key, how the accounting document items are posted would be determined.

Account type identification

When an accounting document is needed to be posted to sub-ledger, SAP uses customer code or vendor code to identify which sub-ledger would be the target sub-ledger.

In the accounting document, the information available is account code and posting key. By the posting key, SAP identifies the account code is customer code or vendor code, which is called as account type.

Account type is an information to tell account code is belonged to which of the sub-ledger, customer, vendor, asset, material, or general ledger.

In other word, by the posting key assigned to accounting document item, SAP determines account type for the item and its account code.

Debit/Credit identification

This is already provided information as above, but posting key is used to determine whether the accounting document item is debit or credit.

Field control

Accounting document item has a lot of field. By the posting key, some of them are controlled to be hidden, or to be displayed on screen.

Tr-Code: OB41 will lead you to the screen to display/customize posting key. Here, you can define Debit/Credit, account type, posting key used for reverse, and field setting such as suppress (hidden), mandatory, or optional entry.

Followings are frequently used posting keys. (Redisplaying)

DebitCredit
G/L Account4050
AR Account0111
AR Account (Special)0919
AP Account2131
AP Account (Special)2939
AA Account7075

Posting in Foreign Currency

When you want to post transaction between foreign currency and local currencies, you need to specify the foreign currency in the first screen of general posting.

Let's take a look at example. Let's say now we are going to transfer bank account in local currency to those in foreign currency. Here, please take local currency is JPY and foreign currency is USD.

This is the first screen. Currency is set as USD, as foreign currency and Account code for first line item of posting key 40 is set as Account code for USD.

In this transaction, exchange from JPY to USD will occur and the rate can be selected from following 3 ways.

  • Exchange rate is determined by posting date (This is the case of screenshot)
  • Exchange rate is manually entered by user
  • Translation date is manually entered by user
    ⇒Based on the date, exchange rate is determined

Exchange rate itself is defined in advance, by combination of from/to currency and period. If the exchange rate is not manually entered, the exchange rate to be applied to the transaction would be selected from the pre-defined rates.

In item level, you need to specify amount. If you enter amount in USD in this case, the amount in JPY would be automatically calculated. If you enter amount in JPY first, then the amount in USD would be automatically calculated. The thing is, you don't need to enter both of them

When the posting is done, as you can see in the general ledger view for the accounting document, the bank account in local currency JPY is transferred to foreign currency USD.

Summary

Tr-Code: F-02 is a transaction code to enter accounting document.

Posting key will control whether the accounting document item is debit/credit item, and account type. Based on the account type, the target sub-ledger to be posted would be identified and when the accounting document is posted, the same entry would be posted in the target sub-ledger.

-SAP/IT

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